Updated: Feb 3, 2022
The first practical typewriter was invented by Charles Thurber and patented in 1843, but
was it never manufactured. The first true typewriter to be manufactured, the Hansen
Writing Ball made its public debut in 1870, but it was another four years (1974) until the commercially successful machine took off.
The first piece of typewriter art was created in 1898, by Flora Stacey, a British secretary,
in 1898 – it was an image of a butterfly composed of brackets, dashes, slashes, and an
asterisk. Since 1898, there have been several major developments within this field,
with Paul Smith being one of the most important figures in this type of art practice.
Typewriter artists use only common office typewriter machine as a tool for image-
making, manually twisting and turning the paper in the feed to strike characters in
precisely chosen spots using a handful of symbols, for example @,%, ^, #, & $ as well as numbers & alphabets.
Even though the typewriters have become obsolete since the developments in
computers, many artists are still working in the field of Typewriter art because they
believe it’s impossible to create such beautiful artworks without a concept and big
talent and no computer art can match the beauty of typewriter art.
Here are the names of some artists who have worked/ are working in this field :
Uday Talwalkar, India
Chandrakant Bhide, India
Paul Smith, America
How to Preserve Artwork? Click here to know more!
1. Soot Painting or Fumage Art :
The name soot means amorphous carbon produced by incomplete burning. Also known
as Fumage meaning: made from fumes or smoke. Fumage is the use of a kerosene lamp
or candle to create smoke, leaving impressions on the canvas.
The technique was invented by the Austrian surrealist artist Wolfgang Paalen in the late
The 1930s and results in a hazy cloudy image suggestive of dreams and apparitions. The
Messenger, created in 1941 by Paalen depicts a ghostly form floating in deep space.
Fumage was also inspired by the surrealist’s attempts to transform automatic writing
into drawing and painting.
Canadian artist Steven Spazuk has used flames in his unconventional art for 14 years.
The fire artist uses flames to create art. Spazuk explains that he first holds a candle in
one hand and a piece of thick paper in the other. He then uses the flame as a pencil and
does on to create his designs using the soot or traces of black carbon. Of course, he has
to be careful not to hold the flame too long in one area of the paper as it could easily
Though Spazuk has spent the last 14 years developing and perfecting his soot painting
technique, the creation process always has an element of random spontaneity and
improvisation. The artist can then go in with a brush, feather, or metal scraping tool to
gently alter and manipulate the soot.
Although not many people are familiar with this type of art form, Spazuk clarifies that
fumage has been around way back in the prehistoric ages, used by cavemen.
2) Ink wash painting
Finds its origins in China and East Asia. The use of black ink in calligraphy led to the popularity of brush painting using the same inks. Ink wash is just like watercolor in grayscale. The difference is, the wash can get darker more easily than watercolor as the ink is opaque than watercolors. And mistakes made with ink wash are difficult to fix. It is a good idea to work with a test paper first.
Ink wash painting uses tonality and shading achieved by varying the ink density, both by
differential grinding of the ink stick in water and by varying the ink load and pressure
within a single brushstroke. Like with watercolor, lighter values of colors are created by
thinning the ink with water. The more water present in the mixture, the lighter
Ink wash painting artists spend years practicing basic brush strokes to refine their brush
movement and ink flow. In the hand of a master, a single stroke can produce astonishing
variations in tonality, from deep black to silvery gray. Thus, in its original context,
shading means more than just a dark-light arrangement: It is the basis for the beautiful
nuance in tonality found in East Asian ink wash painting and brush-and-ink calligraphy.
Brushstrokes are carefully studied, with calligraphy masters spending years perfecting
their strokes. Though today colored inks are widely available, black is still the most
common ink used.
3) luminous painting
is made from special paints that exhibit luminescence. In other words, it gives off visible light through fluorescence, phosphorescence, or radioluminescence.
This water-based paint can be used pure or diluted with other acrylic paints being
fluore /phosphorescent, the final result is glowy, bright, and vibrant. It can be applied to
other non-glow-in-the-dark acrylic paints to give light to your creations. In the absence
of light, these paintings glow and create an eye-pleasing masterpiece.
Cristoforo Scorpiniti an Italian artist who looks to push the boundaries of how we
perceive paintings under the name Crisco Art. He challenges the idea that you can only
appreciate a painting in full light with his artworks that, although lovely to look at in
daylight, really come to life when the lights go out!
Crisco achieves this by using glow-in-the-dark paint to embellish his works, a practice
that basically allows him to create two paintings within the same composition that,
depending on whether the piece is in the dark or not, conceals one of the narratives.
The works transition from day to night scenes as the surroundings get darker, allowing
you to see things the gleam hides.
is the method of drawing portraits that can only be entirely understood from a certain angle. In other cases, the image will only be correctly visible if viewed through a mirror or any reflecting surface. An early well-known example of Anamorphosis was produced by Leonardo da Vinci which was in the 15th century. Dating back to the Renaissance period, other notable examples of this type of art include The Ambassador by Hans Holbein, The Younger, and Andrea Pozzo’s grandiose frescoes on the dome of the Sant’Ignazio church in Rome.
Over the decades, the technique has been renewed or modified ranging from 3
Dimensional portraits are drawn on paper to some street art that mimics holes or crevices on the ground and even some using regular day-to-day items or furniture to create art.
5) Penwald Drawings are a series of bilateral drawings created by Artist Tony Orrico in
which he explores the use of his body as a tool of measurement to inscribe geometries
through movement and course. His choreographic gestures derive from the limitation
of (or spontaneous navigation within) the sphere of his outstretched arms.
Line density becomes a record of Orrico’s mental and physical sustain as he commits his
focus to a greater concept of balance throughout extended durations of drawings. The
master of each drawing is a conceptual score of Orrico’s efficacious techniques, imposed
variables, and specified durations or objectives. Interestingly enough, Orrico actually
performs these illustrations at museums and festivals, to publicly record his bodily
works of art.
Tony Orrico developed his own physical symmetry practice as a point of entry into his
creative work. In his termed “state of readiness” he is interested in the application of a
present body to a surface, object, or course. He avows that artists must prepare
themselves as they would their mediums. With the notion that creativity is an emergent
force, Orrico is fascinated with how physical impulses manifest into visible forms. He
finds inherent beauty in what is lost through representation(s) and how ideas in motion
may replicate, mutate, or disintegrate.
His artifacts and performances often enter infinities of reflective and rotational
symmetry. Centralizing on themes of cyclic motion and the generation and
regeneration of material, the work draws on the tension between what is fleeting and
what is captured.
6) Splashing refers to a set of techniques using brushes and other implements to flick,
throw, or drip paint onto a painting surface — instead of painting with brushes to create
original abstract art. It is also called Action or Speed painting as colors are splashed
on the canvas rapidly.
At first, an artist draws/paints a portrait of an object on the canvas with transparent
paint. After the transparent paint gets dried she/he fills the canvas with multicolored
paints by directly splashing them over the canvas - and at once someone’s portrait or a
composition appears on the canvas. Then further detailing is done.
Unlike other types of visual art, splash painting needs spontaneity, improvisation, and a
highly physical approach to making art. So it requires no formal training. Enthusiasm and
a playful spirit, on the other hand, are important prerequisites to enjoying the process.
7) Encaustic painting, also known as hot wax painting, involves using heated beeswax to
which colored pigments are added. The liquid or paste is then applied to a
surface—usually prepared wood, though canvas and other materials are often used. The
word comes from the Greek word encaustics, meaning “burn-in.”
The simplest encaustic mixture can be made by adding pigments to beeswax, but
there are several other recipes that can be used—some containing other types
of waxes, damar resin, linseed oil, or other ingredients. Pure, powdered pigments can
be used, though some mixtures use oil paints or other forms of pigment.
The extreme heat of the process makes it difficult to control the exact outcome thereby
making each painting unique. The encaustic artist can excavate through the layers with
the torch or iron to reveal previous layers of color and to allow the molten wax to
combine to create new colors. The result is a luminous image encased in translucent
layers of wax.
Metal tools and special brushes can be used to shape the paint before it cools, or
heated metal tools can be used to manipulate the wax once it has cooled onto the
surface. Today, tools such as heat lamps, heat guns, and other methods of applying heat
allow artists to extend the amount of time they have to work with the material. Because
wax is used as the pigment binder, encaustics can be sculpted as well as painted.
8) Reverse painting on glass is an art form consisting of applying paint to a piece of glass
and then viewing the image by turning the glass over and looking through the glass at
Reverse glass painting is a fascinating, yet relatively unknown genre of Indian art, which
flourished in the mid-19th century. Widely considered as “folk” art, the art form was
never a subject of serious study. However, reverse glass paintings were held in high
regard and extremely popular amongst all sections of the Indian society in the late 18th
and the early 19th century.
The process began with the artist placing a clear sheet of glass over their master
drawing. Then, they drew the finer lines and details, following which, metallic foil,
colored or gold paper, and sequins, if used, were added. Then, the larger areas of
opaque color – usually tempera – were applied. ‘Shading’ was used to achieve gradation
of colors, and the painting was finally mounted with the unpainted side first so that it
could be seen through the glass.
Artists were required to have a sharp memory as they had to cover the different
components of a painting sequentially. The technique was laborious, and the fragility of
the glass resulted in breakage and loss of many works.
9) Jiří 'Georg' Dokoupil is a Czech - German artist who’s been painting with soap for
decades, mixing lye with pigments and using a wand to inflate massive bubbles over his
canvases — which leave foamy, iridescent shapes behind after they pop. His soap
painting is one of his longest-running series, and maybe the most fun.
Dokoupil stages dynamic areas of tension between chemistry and art as the traces, now
consisting of soap-lye enriched with metallic pigments and diamond dust, accumulate in
the form of two molecular layers and result in translucent bubbles. The resulting organic
forms settle on the canvas with calculated spontaneity, displaying holographic
tendencies and shifting perspectives.
Seeking to reinvent traditional painting techniques, Dokoupil’s pictures are aesthetically
bold and dynamic yet conceptually rigorous.
10) Gunpowder Painting consists of igniting gunpowder poured on acrylic coated canvas,
untreated wood, or any fire-resistant canvas to create mesmerizing artwork. Though
safety is the major concern in this art it is carried out under the guidance of experts.
An artist with permission from officials can buy gunpowder particularly a fine grain
powder. Then she/he draws the portrait or any other picture on the canvas. By using a
squeeze bottle or any narrow-headed container the gunpowder is poured down &
spread on the desired areas of the drawing. And with the help of proper safety
precautions, the gunpowder is ignited. After the gunpowder is burned up the remaining
debris is removed from the canvas.
Famous artists like Cai Guo-Qiang and Dino Tomic create such Gunpowder Artworks.
This technique consists of throwing iron powder/fillings on a magnetized surface to
create a portrait or design. It looks like a simple technique at first but arranging magnets/surfaces in a typical sequence is a tricky and time-consuming job.
An artist arranges magnets behind a non-magnetic thin surface in such a manner that
when the iron powder is thrown on the surface it sticks to the specific area only. To
make removing iron powder after the art is complete easier a paper or a sheet is put
on the surface. Then the artist simply throws the iron powder on the paper and it sticks on
the surface and creates the portrait or design you wanted.
Even though this technique gives you temporary art as when magnets are removed or
turned off the powder falls down. Some artists use resin or resin-like liquids to fix the
iron powder onto the paper or sheet.